Wishahi M. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in pediatrics progress to kidney disease in adolescents: Toward precision medicine in treatment. World J Nephrol. 2021;10(4):37-46. doi:10.5527/wjn.v10.i4.37
Newborn infants who had neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) have a normal upper urinary tract at birth. Most of them will develop deterioration of renal function and chronic kidney disease if they do not receive proper management. Children with NBD can develop renal damage at adolescence or earlier, which is due to high detrusor pressures resulted from poor compliance of the bladder, detrusor overactivity against a closed sphincter or detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. To preserve renal function and prevent deterioration of the kidneys, NBD must be treated immediately after being diagnosed. Over the last few years there was great progress in the treatment of children with the NBD. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for peer-reviewed articles published in any language up to March 10, 2021, using the search term “neurogenic bladder children.” Our search excluded diagnosis, pathophysiology, surgical treatment of spinal cord injury and spina bifida. The research identified the effectiveness of treatment regimens targeting prevention of chronic kidney disease and the indications of kidney transplantation. The results of the research showed that NBD in children should be diagnosed early in life, and the child should receive the proper management. The literature search concluded that the management of NBD in children would be personalized for every case and could be changed according to response to treatment, side effects, child compliance, availability of treatment modality and costs of treatment. The objectives of the study are to present the different options of management of NBD in children and the selection of the proper method in a personalized manner.
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