Faverio P, Stainer A, De Giacomi F, et al. Molecular Pathways and Respiratory Involvement in Lysosomal Storage Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(2):327. Published 2019 Jan 15. doi:10.3390/ijms20020327
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) include a wide range of different disorders with variable degrees of respiratory system involvement. The purpose of this narrative review is to treat the different types of respiratory manifestations in LSD, with particular attention being paid to the main molecular pathways known so far to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. A literature search was conducted using the Medline/PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify studies, from 1968 through to November 2018, that investigated the respiratory manifestations and molecular pathways affected in LSD. Pulmonary involvement includes interstitial lung disease in Gaucher’s disease and Niemann-Pick disease, obstructive airway disease in Fabry disease and ventilatory disorders with chronic respiratory failure in Pompe disease due to diaphragmatic and abdominal wall muscle weakness. In mucopolysaccharidosis and mucolipidoses, respiratory symptoms usually manifest early in life and are secondary to anatomical malformations, particularly of the trachea and chest wall, and to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the upper and lower airways, causing, for example, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the molecular pathways involved vary, ranging from lipid to glycogen and glycosaminoglycans accumulation, some clinical manifestations and therapeutic approaches are common among diseases, suggesting that lysosomal storage and subsequent cellular toxicity are the common endpoints.
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