Lenke RR, VanDorsten JP, Schifrin BS. Pyelonephritis in pregnancy: a prospective randomized trial to prevent recurrent disease evaluating suppressive therapy with nitrofurantoin and close surveillance. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983 Aug 15;146(8):953-7. PubMed PMID: 6349363.
It has been advocated that if a patient develops acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy, she should receive suppressive therapy for the remainder of the gestation to prevent a recurrence of the disease. We have prospectively evaluated 200 patients following an acute episode of pyelonephritis during pregnancy. All patients were followed in a special clinic. Half the patients received nitrofurantoin as suppressive therapy. Recurrent pyelonephritis occurred in 7% of the patients receiving suppressive therapy versus 8% of those patients receiving close surveillance in the clinic. The results cast doubt upon the need for suppressive therapy and instead dramatized the beneficial effects of close surveillance with cultures. The data also suggest, at least in a high-risk population, that patients with gram-negative bacilluria of less than 105 colonies/ml may have a substantial risk of developing symptomatic recurrences. Prompt treatment of even low levels of gram-negative bacilluria should be considered in patients at risk for recurrent disease.
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