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Six Month Follow-up of Patients With Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in Children

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Capone CA, Misra N, Ganigara M, et al. Six Month Follow-up of Patients With Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in Children. Pediatrics. 2021;148(4):e2021050973. doi:10.1542/peds.2021-050973

Background and Objectives
Myocardial dysfunction and coronary abnormalities are prominent features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). In this study we aim to evaluate the early and midterm outcomes of MIS-C.

This is a longitudinal 6-month cohort study of all children admitted and treated for MIS-C from April 17 to June 20, 2020. Patients were followed ∼2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months postadmission, with those with coronary aneurysms evaluated more frequently.

Acutely, 31 (62%) patients required intensive care with vasoactive support, 26 (52%) had left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, 16 (32%) had LV diastolic dysfunction, 8 (16%) had coronary aneurysms (z score ≥2.5), and 4 (8%) had coronary dilation (z score <2.5). A total of 48 patients (96%) received immunomodulatory treatment. At 2 weeks, there was persistent mild LV systolic dysfunction in 1 patient, coronary aneurysms in 2, and dilated coronary artery in 1. By 8 weeks through 6 months, all patients returned to functional baseline with normal LV systolic function and resolution of coronary abnormalities. Cardiac MRI performed during recovery in select patients revealed no myocardial edema or fibrosis. Some patients demonstrated persistent diastolic dysfunction at 2 weeks (5, 11%), 8 weeks (4, 9%), and 6 months (1, 4%).

Children with MIS-C treated with immunomodulators have favorable early outcomes with no mortality, normalization of LV systolic function, recovery of coronary abnormalities, and no inflammation or scarring on cardiac MRI. Persistence of diastolic dysfunction is of uncertain significance and indicates need for larger studies to improve understanding of MIS-C. These findings may help guide clinical management, outpatient monitoring, and considerations for sports clearance.

Disponível Em: <https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/>