Waterhouse M A, Villion A, Manougian T, et al. (June 14, 2021) The Perfect Cytokine Storm: Utilization of Lung Ultrasound During Urgent Surgery in an Infant With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis. Cureus 13(6): e15640. doi:10.7759/cureus.15640
Reports of children with a temporal association to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 hospitalized with cardiogenic shock or Kawasaki-like disease began emerging in April 2020. In May 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published the criteria for what came to be known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, a postinfectious inflammatory immune response to coronavirus disease 2019 exposure. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a heterogeneous disease state associated with systemic hyperinflammation secondary to immune dysregulation. We describe the utility of perioperative lung ultrasound in an infant with both disease states.
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