Bergholz R, Boettcher M, Reinshagen K, Wenke K. Complex gastroschisis is a different entity to simple gastroschisis affecting morbidity and mortality-a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 2014 Oct;49(10):1527-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.08.001. Epub 2014 Sep 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 25280661.
Comparison of the outcome of newborns with simple (sGS) and complex gastroschisis (cGS: gastroschisis with atresia, necrosis, perforation or volvulus).
Materials and Methods
We conducted a systematic database search, quality assessment and meta-analyzed relevant articles which evaluated the mortality and morbidity of newborns with cGS versus sGS.
Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were reported for categorical data, and the mean difference (MD) was calculated for continuous data. Pooled estimates of RR and MD were computed using generic inverse variance and a random-effects model.
Of 19 identified reports, 13 eligible studies were included. The mortality of infants with cGS (16.67%) was significantly higher than sGS (2.18%, RR: 5.39 [2.42, 12.01], p < 0.0001). Significantly different outcome was found for the following parameters: Infants with cGS are started on enteral feedings later and they take longer to full enteral feedings with a subsequent longer duration of parenteral nutrition. Their risk of sepsis, short bowel syndrome and necrotizing enterocolitis is higher. They stay longer in hospital and are more likely to be sent home with enteral tube feedings and parenteral nutrition.
Occurring in 17% of infants born with gastroschisis, complex gastroschisis is associated with a significantly increased morbidity and mortality. More research should be focused on this special subgroup of patients, not only on postnatal management, but additionally directing efforts to improve diagnosing and predicting complex gastroschisis prenatally as well as implement any probable fetal intervention to alleviate its disastrous outcome.
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