Romanelli RM, Anchieta LM, Bueno E Silva AC, de Jesus LA, Rosado V, Clemente WT. Empirical antimicrobial therapy for late-onset sepsis in a neonatal unit with high prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2016 Sep-Oct;92(5):472-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2016.01.008. Epub 2016 Apr 22. PMID: 27112033.
The aim of this study was to compare two different empiric treatments for late-onset neonatal sepsis, vancomycin and oxacillin, in a neonatal intensive care unit with a high prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in an neonatal intensive care unit from 2011 to 2014. Data from the medical records of at-risk newborns were collected daily. Infections were defined according to the National Health Surveillance Agency criteria. Data analysis was performed using an internal program.
There was a significant reduction in the number of Staphylococcus aureus infections (p=0.008), without endocarditis, meningitis, or lower respiratory tract infection, as well as a reduction in the frequency of deaths related to S. aureus infection. There were no significant changes in the incidence of Gram-negative bacterial or fungal infections. An increase in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections was observed (p=0.022). However, there was no measured increase in related morbidity and mortality. There was a reduction in the median number of days of treatment with oxacillin from 11.5 to 6 days (p<0.001) and an increase of one day in the median number of days of treatment with vancomycin (p=0.046).
Modification of the empiric treatment regimen for neonatal late-onset sepsis with use of oxacillin showed a significant reduction in S. aureus infections, as well as a reduction in the frequency of infections with major organ system involvement and mortality due to infection with this microorganism. As a result, oxacillin can be considered as an effective treatment for late-onset sepsis, making it possible to avoid broad-spectrum antibiotics.
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