van Goudoever JB, Carnielli V, Darmaun D, Sainz de Pipaon M; ESPGHAN/ESPEN/ESPR/CSPEN working group on pediatric parenteral nutrition. ESPGHAN/ESPEN/ESPR/CSPEN guidelines on pediatric parenteral nutrition: Amino acids. Clin Nutr. 2018 Dec;37(6 Pt B):2315-2323. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.06.945. Epub 2018 Jun 18. PMID: 30100107.
Search: Searches were performed in three stages. First, all thetitles with the relevant key words were retrieved by the CochraneCollaboration Department from Budapest, who also performed thefirst reduction. Publications published after the previous guidelines(i.e., from 2004eDecember 2014), were considered. Members ofthe Working Group subsequently read all the titles and abstracts,and selected potentially relevant ones. These were retrieved andfull articles were assessed. Some studies published in 2015 or 2016 during the revision process have also been considered. The refer-ences cited in the previous guidelines are not repeated here, exceptfor some relevant publications; only the previous guidelines will becited instead.
Type of publications: Original papers, meta-analyses andoverviews.
Key words: parenteral nutrition, amino acids, requirements,toxicity, deficiency.Age: Child, infant, preterm.
Outcome: Recommendations were developed from a standpointof nutrient adequacy. Depending on age groups, nutrient adequacywas based on intrauterine accretion rate, organ development,factorial estimates of requirements and amino acid interactions.Individual amino acids are discussed. Minimal intakes of specificamino acids are those that meet the specific requirement of chil-dren in that age group. Maximal intakes are recommended toprevent excessive and potentially harmful intakes of amino acids.
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