Maheshwari R, Tracy M, Badawi N, Hinder M. Neonatal endotracheal intubation: How to make it more baby friendly. J Paediatr Child Health. 2016 May;52(5):480-6. doi: 10.1111/jpc.13192. Review. PubMed PMID: 27329901.
Neonatal endotracheal intubation is commonly accompanied by significant disturbances in physiological parameters. The procedure is often poorly tolerated, and multiple attempts are commonly required before the airway is secured. Adverse physiological effects include hypoxemia, bradycardia, hypertension, elevation in intracranial pressure and possibly increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Use of premedications to facilitate intubation has been shown to reduce but not eliminate these effects. Other important preventative factors include adequate training of the operators and guidelines to limit the duration of attempts. Pre-intubation stabilisation with optimal bag and mask ventilation should allow for better neonatal tolerance of the procedure. Recent research has described significant mask leak and airway obstruction compromising efficacy of neonatal mask ventilation. Further research should help in elucidating mask ventilation techniques which minimise mask leak and airway obstruction.