Mauskopf J, Margulis AV, Samuel M, Lohr KN. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalizations in Healthy Preterm Infants: Systematic Review. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;35(7):e229-e238. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000001163
Studies have explored the risk for and impact of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring hospitalization among healthy preterm infants born at 29-35 weeks of gestational age not given RSV immunoprophylaxis. We performed a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of these studies.
Two experienced reviewers used prespecified inclusion/exclusion criteria to screen titles/abstracts and full-text studies using MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS and Cochrane Library (January 1, 1985, to November 6, 2014). We abstracted data on risk factors for RSV hospitalization, incidence and short- and long-term outcomes of RSV hospitalization. Using standard procedures, we assessed study risk of bias and graded strength of evidence (SOE).
We identified 4754 records and reviewed 27. Important risk factors for RSV hospitalization included young age during the RSV season, having school-age siblings and day-care attendance, with odds ratios >2.5 in at least one study (high SOE). Incidence rates for RSV hospitalizations ranged from 2.3% to 10% (low SOE). Length of hospital stays ranged from 3.8 to 6.1 days (low SOE). Recurrent wheezing rates ranged from 20.7% to 42.8% 1 to 2 years after RSV hospitalization (low SOE).
Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors.
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